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Sample Training Programs at ApICS LLC

If you would like to see the first section of the 1st Chapter in the "Advanced Dynamic Simulation" Course. go to THIS LINK. For information on some sample courses offered by ApICS LLC for applications in Industrial Automation, Process Automation, Control Automation, Control Systems, System Stability, System Modeling, Regulator Design, Controller Design, Dynamic Analysis, Process Control, Motion Control, Web-Handling, Roll Winding, Temperature Regulation, Pressure Regulation, reading Bode Plots, and others, read the summaries below.

Control System Design and Analysis Fundamentals

This program consists of three two-hour courses that are designed to provide the participant with a working knowledge of Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) control systems. Frequency domain analysis techniques are covered in enough detail to give the participant the capability of "hand-sketching" a bode plot of the controlled plant from the desired input to the desired output control variable, and then to design an appropriate controller for that plant. This course deals with both first order, and second order, plant behavior. The second order phenomena is included to give the participant a feel for more difficult control problems. Discussions about when, and when not, to use pole-zero cancellation techniques are provided to make the participant aware of the pitfalls of theoretically correct but practically not-implementable control system design methods. These discussions also explain why some modern control techniques do not work well in certain industrial control problems. A comprehensive analysis of speed and position loops is provided, using both feed-back and feed-forward control techniques. Below is a course summary:

Note: For all plotting and simulation demonstrations, MATLAB ® and SIMULINK ® are used during the course.

1st Session

  • Brief overview of differential equations and the Laplace operator
  • s=jw, and the Bode plot.
  • First order poles and zeroes.
  • Second order poles and zeroes.
  • The PI (proportional plus Integral) regulator
  • The PID (proportional plus Integral plus Derivative) regulator

2nd Session

  • Loop shaping techniques (Includes the MATLAB ® script for a proprietary loop-shaping algorithm)
  • Designing a first order controller based on the frequency response of the plant
  • Lead-lag compensation techniques.
  • First and second order pole-zero cancellation techniques, and when to apply them.
  • The speed controlled "plant"
  • The position controlled "plant"

3rd Session

  • Designing a feedback speed regulator.
  • Designing a feedback position regulator.
  • Using feed-forward techniques to improve reference tracking.
  • Reference forcing techniques.
  • Dealing with non-linearities (such as friction and windage, gear backlash etc).
  • Discussion and experimentation with some simulations.

Advanced Dynamic Simulation

Course Objective

This 20 session course is designed to give participants the tools required to perform dynamic analysis and simulation of electro-mechanical systems.

Course Outline

Each session will be 2 hours in length and will include homework assignments. The course will be broken up as follows:

  1. Four sessions will include refresher material in Laplace and frequency domain analysis techniques, and differential equations.
  2. Six sessions will cover techniques for developing linear and non-linear models of typical plant configurations.
  3. Eight sessions will cover control strategies for current, voltage, speed, tension, pressure, and temperature.
  4. The final two sessions will be for review.

MATLAB ® and SIMULINK ® will be used during the course as both an instructional and analytical tool. At the completion of the course participants should be fluent in the implementation of system simulations in the SIMULINK ® dynamic simulation environment.

Course Curriculum

Sessions 1&2

  • Review of complex numbers and complex algebra
  • Definition of a linear system.
  • Relationship between differential equations, linear systems, and the Laplace transform.
  • Examples of differential equations typical to linear systems will be solved using traditional techniques and compared to those obtained using the inverse Laplace transform and partial fraction expansion. Emphasis will be placed on the separation between the real and imaginary parts of the solution (as well as the transient and steady state aspects of the solution).
  • The complex variable and sine/cosine representations of the solutions will be covered.

The objective of this session will be to minimize emphasis on the pure algebra and maximize emphasis on the described relationships and their meaning in the physical world

Sessions 3&4

  • Definition of the frequency domain, poles, and zeroes.
  • Definition of the characteristic polynomial and its associated roots. 1st and 2nd order systems.
  • Definition of system impulse response, step response and sinusoidal response.
  • Frequency domain solutions to the sample sets of linear differential equations used in session 1. but using the complex Laplace operator (ie s=jw) to obtain a system steady state solution for a sinusoidal system input.
  • The principals of the Bode plot.
  • Bode representation of 1st order poles and zeroes. Bode representation of second order poles and zeroes (both complex and real pole/zero pairs).
  • Transfer functions and estimated (asymptotic) Bode plots.
  • Definition of crossover frequency, phase margin, and gain margin.

The main objective of this session is to provide a concrete understanding of the relationship between the frequency response of a system and its associated transfer function. This provides the fundamentals required to understand the concept of stability used in later sessions.

Sessions 5&6

  • Per-Normal units vís engineering units.
  • Rotational systems and translational systems.
  • Explanation of mass/inertia, damping, and resonance using a single mass single spring system with a viscous damper (will include a demonstration of a conversion from a translational to a rotational system).
  • (2)-mass single-spring systems
  • (n)-mass (n-1)-spring systems
  • Block diagrams of transfer functions. Basic rules used in building block diagrams of linear systems.
  • Explanation of, and modeling of an inertia with viscous damping.
  • Explanation of, and modeling of a DC motor and DC Generator.
  • Explanation of, and modeling of an AC motor and AC Generator.
  • Build a full linear model of a motor, gear-box, and load inertia.
  • Explanation of, and modeling of gear backlash
  • Explanation of, and modeling of stiction
  • Explanation of, and modeling of non-linear springs
  • Build a full non-linear model of a motor, gear-box, and load inertia.

The main objective of this session will be to introduce the participant to basic modeling concepts and provide him/her with a solid understanding of modeling the motor train.

Sessions 7&8

  • Derivation of the web tension equation
  • Explanation of, and modeling of web damping and non-linear modulus of elasticity.
  • Derivation of the non-linear model (and block-diagram) for web tension. Interfacing the non-linear block-diagram of web tension to the block diagram of the drive train described in Sessions 5-6.
  • Physics of Winders/Unwinders.
  • Modeling multiple drive systems.

The main objective of this session is to provide the participant with a solid understanding of web tension and the modeling of associated web non-linearities.

Sessions 9 &10

  • Development of linear and non-linear dancer models and block diagrams.
  • Interfacing the dancer block diagrams to the tension and drive train block diagrams from Sessions 5-8.
  • MG-sets electrical model development and block diagrams.
  • Explanation of, and modeling of Temperature systems and their associated block diagrams.
  • Explanation of, and modeling of Pressure systems and their associated block diagrams.
  • Interfacing MG-set electrical block diagrams to motor/generator mechanical drive train block diagrams.
  • Interfacing temperature, and pressure block diagrams to systems with block diagrams of actuators and heating/pressure generators.

This session concludes training in plant modeling techniques. Sessions 5-11 are expected to provide the participant with enough background in modeling to enable him/her to work independently on model generation.

Sessions 11 & 12

  • Explanation of, and modeling of current minor loops.
  • Modelling non-linearites associated with the Automax discretization (sampling) and quantization effects.
  • Modelling function tables, rate limits and peak limits
  • Modelling integrator clamp and hold circuits.
  • Constant diameter, voltage only speed loop analysis and tuning methodology.
  • Integration of constant diameter, voltage only speed loop block diagrams to appropriate plant model block diagrams from Sessions 5-11, in the SIMULINK ® simulation environment.
  • Constant diameter, voltage and field speed loop analysis and tuning methodology.
  • Integration of constant diameter, voltage and field speed loop block diagrams to appropriate plant model block diagrams from 5-11, in the SIMULINK ® simulation environment.
  • Center winder, voltage and field speed loop analysis and tuning methodology.
  • Integration of center winder, voltage and field speed loop block diagrams to appropriate plant model block diagrams from Sessions 5-11, in the SIMULINK ® simulation environment.
  • Miscellaneous speed loop configurations.
  • Constant diameter, voltage regulator analysis and tuning methodology.
  • Integration of constant diameter, voltage regulator block diagrams to appropriate plant model block diagrams from Sessions 5-11, in the SIMULINK ® simulation environment.
  • Center winder, voltage regulator analysis and tuning methodology.
  • Integration of center winder, voltage regulator block diagrams to appropriate plant model block diagrams from Sessions 5-11, in the SIMULINK ® simulation environment.

The objective of this Session is to provide the participant with tools for modelling mixed mode systems. The theory behind the PI control strategies of typical CML, speed and voltage loops are explained, as are the methods used in integrating these loops to the appropriate plants derived and modeled in Sessions 5-11.

Sessions 13 & 14

  • A discussion about "parallel" and "cascaded" tension and current loops. Some guidelines for choosing between the two
  • A discussion about "feedback forcing", when and where to use it.
  • Center winder, current major, speed intermediate loop (V&F) analysis and tuning methodology.
  • Integration of center winder, current major, speed intermediate loop (V&F) block diagrams to appropriate plant models block diagrams from Sessions 5-11 in the SIMULINK ® environment.
  • Constant diameter, voltage and field, position major, speed intermediate loop analysis and tuning methodology (4 designs, when and where to use each design is explained)
  • Integration of constant diameter, voltage and field, position major, speed intermediate loop block diagrams to appropriate plant model block diagrams from Sessions 5-11, in the SIMULINK ® simulation environment.
  • Center winder, voltage and field, position major, speed intermediate loop analysis and tuning methodology.
  • Integration of center winder, voltage and field, position major, speed intermediate loop block diagrams to appropriate plant model block diagrams from Sessions 5-11, in the SIMULINK ® simulation environment.

The objective of this Session is to provide the participant with the theory behind the PI control strategies of the current major loops and the four currently used position major loops. The methods used in integrating these loops to the appropriate plants derived and modeled in Sessions 5-11. is also presented.

Sessions 15 & 16

  • Constant diameter, voltage and field, tension major, speed intermediate loop analysis and tuning methodology (4 designs, when and where to use each design is also explained)
  • Integration of constant diameter, voltage and field, tension major, speed intermediate loop block diagrams to appropriate plant model block diagrams from Sessions 5-11, in the SIMULINK ® simulation environment.
  • Center winder, voltage and field, tension major, speed intermediate loop analysis and tuning methodology.
  • Integration of center winder, voltage and field, tension major, speed intermediate loop block diagrams to appropriate plant model block diagrams from Sessions 5-11, in the SIMULINK ® simulation environment.
  • Constant diameter, voltage and field, tension major, parallel loop analysis and tuning methodology (4 designs, when and where to use each design is also explained)
  • Integration of constant diameter, voltage and field, tension major, parallel loop block diagrams to appropriate plant model block diagrams from Sessions 5-11, in the SIMULINK ® simulation environment.
  • Center winder, voltage and field, tension major, parallel loop analysis and tuning methodology.
  • Integration of center winder, voltage and field, tension major, parallel loop block diagrams to appropriate plant model block diagrams from Sessions 5-11, in the SIMULINK ® simulation environment.

The objective of this Session is to provide the participant with the theory behind the PI control strategies of the tension loops, as well as the methods used in integrating these loops to the appropriate plants derived and modeled in Sessions 5-11.

Sessions 17 & 18

  • Explanation of PID control algorithms.
  • PID temperature control loop analysis and tuning methodology.
  • Integration of the PID temperature control loop block diagrams to appropriate plant model block diagrams from Sessions 5-11, in the SIMULINK ® simulation environment.
  • PID pressure control loop analysis and tuning methodology.
  • Integration of the PID pressure control loop block diagrams to appropriate plant model block diagrams from Sessions 5-11, in the SIMULINK ® simulation environment.
  • Creating and using s-functions
  • A case study of s-functions as used in an adaptive control scheme.
  • Techniques for modeling large systems.

This Session concludes the control loop analysis and modeling in the SIMULINK ® environment. At the completion of this Session the participants should be able to model complete control systems independently.

Sessions 19 and 20

This session is to be used for review of sessions 1 through 9. An informal questions and answers session will also be held.

Application Specific Training

Application specific training is custom designed for each application. For example a Vendor may want to train their engineers in the physics, and control of Winder systems. Another example would be a course designed for Automotive test stand control systems. In each instance, ApICS LLC consultants will sit down with the customer and design the course to match the technical level of the participants, and to ensure that the desired expertise is imparted to them. If you are interested in a custom application-specific training program, let us know, and we will get back to you with a detailed quote.

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